Research Impact

 

Research impact is a poorly defined term that, broadly speaking, summarizes the influence of academic research beyond academic communications. It is thus easy to say what is not meant by 'research impact': publications and citations. Thus, research impact is a residual category that of course can be empty: most research does not have 'research impact' -- just like most research remains rarely cited.

 

Proponents of the research agenda stress that scientific research can have impact outside the narrow world of academia even if the research is rarely cited. Whether that is true depends on the definition of 'research' more than on the definition of 'impact'. Often, proponents of the research impact agenda do not distinguish between the 'impact' of a researcher and the the 'impact' of research. A researchers that sits on a governmental committee may or may not have impact, but that impact may be independent of the researcher's research.

 

The concept of research impact also suffers from an important qualification: the influence research has on the world is considered as 'research impact' if and only if the world, the country, the industry, the civil society 'benefits': "Impact is all the diverse ways that research benefits individuals, organisations and nations through increasing effectiveness of public services and policy, improving quality of life and health, or economic benefits."

 

Clearly, this immediate leads to the question who defines what 'benefits' are. And the answer cannot be that a governmental body or a committee decides.

 

 

 

 

Natural Disasters

 

UNESCO

"The way our societies are organized can make a big difference in how women and men, girls and boys survive disasters. Where we are when a disaster strikes, the safety and preparedness level of our main sites of activities i.e., kitchen, farm, school, market , the kinds of warnings

and help we get, the clothes we wear i.e., long narrow skirt, trousers as  well as the skills we have i.e., swimming, climbing determine how well

we fare when a hazard strikes. In many societies, those are different for women/girls and men/boys and leads to women and girls having lower

chances to survive disasters. Here are some facts: In places where women have fewer social and economic rights, the number of deaths among women is higher than men. In post-disaster settings, many girls and women become victims of domestic and sexual violence. Reports show that some men deal with disaster-related stress by physically abusing their wives and children. Also, women and girls living in shelters are often targeted for rape.

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002289/228964e.pdf

 

WHO

"There is  good evidence   showing   that   women and men suffer different negative health consequences following extreme events such as floods, windstorms, droughts and heatwaves. A review of census information on the effects of natural disasters across 141 countries showed that

although disasters create hardships for everyone, on average they kill more women than men, or kill women at a younger age than men

 These differences persist in proportion to the severity of disasters and depend on the relative socioeconomic status of women in the affected country. This effect is strongest in countries where women have very low social, economic and political status In countries where women have comparable status to men, natural disasters affect men and women almost equally (Neumayer & Plümper, 2007). The same study highlighted that physical differences between men and women are unlikely to explain these differences, and social norms may provide some additional explanation."

 http://www.who.int/globalchange/GenderClimateChangeHealthfinal.pdf

 

United Nations Development Program

"Sri Lanka’s tsunami killed nearly 1 in 5 displaced  women  and  almost  1  in  3  displaced children  under  age  5—more  than  two  times and four times the mortality of displaced men.  And  in  rural India  the  mortality  differential  between  girls and boys increases during droughts (Neumayer and Plümper 2007) The  strikingly  unequal  gender  effects  of natural  disasters  suggest  that  inequality  in exposure and sensitivity to risk as well as disparities in access to resources, capabilities and opportunities overlap and systematically disadvantage some groups. Higher  female  mortality  from  natural  disasters  and  their  aftermaths  cannot  be explained  by  biology  and  physiology."

UNDP: Human Development Report 2011

http://www.sl.undp.org/content/dam/sierraleone/docs/HDRs/undp_sle_HDR2011.pdf

 

IMF

"Natural disasters can have a disproportionate impact on the poor. Low-income communities tend to be located in the most vulnerable areas with weak housing standards (World Bank, 2003, 2016a, 2016b) and disasters can exacerbate social conditions. Low-income communities also commonly do not have access to credit or insurance to help weather shocks (IMF, 2003). There is also a gender element, with natural disasters having their largest impact on life expectancy for women and girls (Neumayer and Plumper, 2007)."

IMF: SMALL STATES’ RESILIENCE TO NATURAL DISASTERS AND CLIMATE CHANGE—ROLE FOR THE IMF

https://www.imf.org/external/np/pp/eng/2016/110416.pdf

 

World Bank

Women’s roles during physical reconstruction are often considered marginal, while their contributions  to  the  social  side  of  reconstruction

are  often  unappreciated—including  childcare, household maintenance and care of the elderly. There is evidence that gender blind relief efforts

leave  women  marginalized  in  their  efforts  to  access  support  if  they  rely  on  existing  structures of resource distribution that reflects the patriarchal structure of society (Neumayer and Pluemper, 2007:555).

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEAPREGTOPSOCDEV/Resources/12680GNEAPDisaster.pdf

 

GSDRC

"Looking at the effects of natural disasters in 141 countries over the period 1981 to 2002, the study shows that in societies where the socioeconomic status of women is low, natural disasters kill more women than men, both directly and indirectly via related post-disaster events. They also kill women at a younger age than men. The reason for the difference in mortality lies largely in the everyday socioeconomic status of women. Natural disasters do not affect people equally. Inequalities in exposure and sensitivity to risk as well as inequalities in access to resources, capabilities and opportunities systematically disadvantage certain groups of people, making them more vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters. Social norms and role behaviours provide some explanation for the difference in mortality between men and women."

http://www.gsdrc.org/document-library/the-gendered-nature-of-natural-disasters-the-impact-of-catastrophic-events-on-the-gender-gap-in-life-expectancy/

 

UK government

"In  this  context  the  works  by  Neumayer  and  Plümper  (2007),  and  Plümper  and  Neumayer (2006) are of particular note.  The researchers constructed indicators of disaster magnitude and women’s socio-economic status and explored how these relate to the size of the gender

gap  in  life  expectancy.    They  concluded  that  in  countries  where  a  disaster  had  occurred, where  the  socio-economic  status  of  women  is  low,  more  women  than  men  die or  die  at  a younger age.  They did not (and could not) explore existing gender disaggregated data sets

on disaster deaths as these do not exist.  Even the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) does  not  hold  data  disaggregated  by  gender  and  generation;  not  because  they  do  not choose  to  or  are  unaware  of  the  need  for  such  data,  but  because  the  organizations  who

provide data for the database do not collect it (Fordham et al. 2007).  Studies such as those by  Neumayer  and  Plümper  highlight  that  socio-economic  status  and  gender  matter,  but more importantly highlight the need for data to be disaggregated by gender and generation

in  order  to  understand  and  address  this.  Pieces  of  research  such  as  these  are  more acceptable to those who seek ‘objective’ data and distrust some gender work because of its perceived  subjective  advocacy  basis.  Ironically  perhaps,  the  statistical  analyses  become

some  of  the  best  advocacy  tools  because  they  are  seen  to  have  been  largely  conducted outside the gender research field."

https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/236656/women-girls-disasters.pdf

 

International Union for the Conservation of Nature

"The differentiated impact of disasters on men and women is primarily caused by the existing gender inequalities manifested. As a 2007 study conducted by London School of Economic shows, taken a sample of up to 141 countries over the period 1981 to 2002, natural disasters and their subsequent impact, on average, kill more women than men or kill women at an earlier age than men related to women’s lower socio-economic status (Neumayer and Plümper, 2007)."

https://www.iucn.org/content/how-natural-disasters-affect-women

 

United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction

"The risks, vulnerabilities and needs of women and girls have been neglected in the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) discourse and actions for long. The HFA (Hyogo Framework of Action, the precursor of the Sendai Framework  for  Disaster  Risk  Reduction)  monitoring  reports  have  been  confirming  that. Evidence and research show that women and girls are most vulnerable to disasters. Statistical analysis on 141 countries

found that women were more likely to die, or die sooner, than men in disasters."

https://www.unisdr.org/files/globalplatform/59267e0eba219GIR_in_brief.pdf

 

Population Reference Bureau

"A 2007 study found that, on average, natural disasters kill more women than men and lower the life expectancy of women more than men. The stronger the disaster, the stronger the impact on the gender gap in life expectancy. In the Asian tsunami of 2004, survival was much higher among men than women. This inequity can be attributed to many possible and interrelated causes, but the fact that this effect is most pronounced where women have lower socioeconomic status and power leads experts to believe that the causes are more cultural than biological or physiological."

http://www.prb.org/Publications/Articles/2012/women-vulnerable-climate-change.aspx

 

Institute for Women's Policy Research

"Major disasters during the last decade have pushed planners and researchers to examine more closely the disparities among those hurt when

crises hit. Research suggests that women often  suffer disproportionately in comparison to most men when disaster strikes, while the elderly, and

people in poverty are more vulnerable than those with more mobility and those with greater access to resources."

https://iwpr.org/wp-content/uploads/wpallimport/files/iwpr-export/publications/D492.pdf

 

European Union

"A well known study of the London School of Economics a.o. (Neumayer and Plümper, 2007) that analyzed 141 natural disasters that o

ccurred during the period 1981 to 2002, showed that the chance that women survive is significantly smaller than that of men. The stronger the

disaster, the larger this effect; and the bigger the gender inequality, the larger the gender-differentiated impact. There are also some situations in which more male victims occur, but these are much more limited."

http://www.europarl.europa.eu/document/activities/cont/201110/20111019ATT29752/20111019ATT29752EN.pdf

 

Australian Productivity Commission

"Despite the potential benefits associated with mitigation activities, on balance, expenditure on mitigation is likely to be below the optimal level. While the total amount of mitigation expenditure  across  all  governments  is  not  known,  the  vast  majority  of  the  Australian  Government’s  expenditure  on  natural  disasters  has  occurred  after  a  disaster  event,  rather  than  predisaster  to  increase  resilience  (supplementary  paper  3).  There  are  a  range  of distortions  that  work  against  increased  mitigation  activity  — including problems  of collective action, information asymmetry and myopic behaviour  (Neumayer, Plümper and Barthel 2013).

http://apo.org.au/system/files/41472/apo-nid41472-78516.pdf

 

South Sudan Peace Portal

"Climate change poses global risks (World Economic Forum, 2016, IPCC, 2014). These risks adversely affect women in developing countries because of their little capacity to adapt (Brody et al, 2008). Previous studies show that women are more vulnerable to climate change than men for a variety of reasons, including illiteracy, low socioeconomic skills, inadequate access to assets, and social isolation, among others (Ahmad and Fajber, 2009; Archer 2003; UNISDR, 2008; Neumayer and Plumper, 2007). Thus, if empowered, women can contribute significantly to climate change adaptation and mitigation."

https://www.southsudanpeaceportal.com/repository/climate-change-and-gender-in-south-sudan/

 

Women Across Frontiers

"A 2007 study by Neumayer and Plumper found that natural disasters kill, on average, more women than men, especially in situations where women’s economic mobility is constrained. A review of extreme weather events conducted by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the Women’s Environment & Development Organization (WEDO) found that during the 2004 Asian tsunami 70% of the fatalities were women."

https://wafmag.org/2016/03/women-climate-change-meet-gendered-impact-natural-disasters/

 

UICN

"The differentiated impact of disasters on men and women is primarily caused by the existing gender inequalities manifested. As a 2007 study conducted by London School of Economic shows, taken a sample of up to 141 countries over the period 1981 to 2002, natural disasters and their subsequent impact, on average, kill more women than men or kill women at an earlier age than men related to women’s lower socio-economic status (Neumayer and Plümper, 2007)."

https://www.iucn.org/es/node/3987

 

Prevention Web

Extreme hazards are translated into risk through exposure and vulnerability, as tragically illustrated in all its dimensions by the earthquake that struck Haiti on 12 January 2010. The earthquake produced severe intensities of VII to IX on the Modified Mercalli scale, and mortality was very high, estimated at 222,517(UNOCHA, 2010). This high death toll reflected the exposure of large numbers of people, and vulnerability factors such as extreme poverty, corruption, a fragile democracy, and a lack of earthquake experience in a country where they only occur infrequently (Keefer et al., 2010).

https://www.preventionweb.net/english/hyogo/gar/2011/en/home/intro_1.2.html

 

Washington Post (Nov 15, 2013)

"First, the system is prone to under-provision of public goods and services broadly, but may be particularly ill-suited to disaster preparedness.  Disaster preparedness projects are susceptible to the same misappropriation as other public works. Philip Keefer and Eric Neumayer and Thomas Plümper note government incentives for disaster preparedness can be problematic in many countries, but are particularly so in countries struggling with poverty and corruption."

 

Monkey Cage

"Yet, some governments appear to invest much more heavily in disaster-proofing public buildings and infrastructure and in passing and enforcing strict building codes than others. In two papers we discuss how variation in the political incentive structure determines the extent to which governments proactively seek to prevent earthquake fatality and damage (Keefer et al. 2011; Plümper et al. 2011). We argue that a strong influence on these incentives stems from the likelihood with which a disaster strikes and its probable magnitude. Such earthquake propensity varies largely across countries, as already mentioned in our brief review of the geology of earthquake prediction. This propensity can be approximately known by governments either via receiving expert advice from geologists or simply by inference from a country’s past history of disaster events. A high earthquake propensity raises the political costs to governments of under-investing in disaster prevention and mitigation. In turn, a low earthquake propensity raises the relative political costs of strict and strictly enforced construction standards as more voters find these measures unnecessary. As a consequence, a quake of the same magnitude will cause many more fatalities and much more damage in low-propensity Spain, where few policy makers have given even a thought to earthquakes, than in high-propensity Japan, where most infrastructure and buildings are quake-proof."

https://themonkeycage.org/2011/07/from-the-political-economy-newsletter-earthquake-mortality-and-damage/

 

Akademie der Naturwissenschaften, Schweiz

"Auf der Basis von 4600 Extremwetterereignissen in 141 Ländern zeigten Neumayer und Plümper die systematische Häufung von unterprivilegierten Gruppen unter den Opfern von Naturkatastrophen.3 Der Befund verweist auf die Verletzlichkeit von Frauen und Männern unter den Bedingungen der globalen Erwärmung. Es gibt naheliegende biologische Gründe, warum Frauen im Katastrophenfall härter getroffen werden: Physische Kraft und Schnelligkeit machen den Unterschied, wenn es gilt, sich in Sicherheit zu bringen. Mindestens so ausschlaggebend sind jedoch soziale Zuschreibungen, normative Rollenbilder und strukturelle Ungleichheiten. Die Zuständigkeit für Kinder oder Ältere hält Frauen davon ab, sich auf schnellstem Weg zu retten. Kleidungsvorschriften beinträchtigen die Bewegungsfreiheit. Der Zugang zu Information, Ressourcen oder einem Auto kann über Leben und Tod entscheiden. Männer kann es treffen, wenn sie im Bestreben, dem Ideal als Beschützer zu entsprechen, Risiken falsch einschätzen. Die Handlungsmöglichkeiten schrumpfen weiter, wenn ethnische Marginalisierung oder Zurücksetzung aufgrund der sozialen Klasse hinzukommen."

https://scnat.ch/de/uuid/i/209a69f2-d475-5368-b8ff-619e18d35504-Das_Potenzial_liegt_brach

 

Climate Investment Funds

"In developing countries, natural disasters typically kill more women than men because they tend to have lower social and economic rights. Eric Neumayer and Thomas Plumper are among those who have studied this in detail and explain that given existing patterns of gender discrimination, boys are likely to receive preferential treatment when it comes to rescue efforts and both women and girls suffer more from shortages of food and economic resources in the aftermath of disasters."

https://www.climateinvestmentfunds.org/news/gender-equality-times-climate-change-matter-life-and-death

 

Akademie der Naturwissenschaften Schweiz

Der Wirbelsturm Katrina ist keine Ausnahme, wie Extremereignisse Strukturen sozialer Ungleichheit verschärfen. Auf der Basis von 4600 Extremwetterereignissen in 141 Ländern zeigten Neumayer und Plümper die systematische Häufung von unterprivilegierten Gruppen unter den Opfern von Naturkatastrophen.3

https://scnat.ch/de/uuid/i/209a69f2-d475-5368-b8ff-619e18d35504-Das_Potenzial_liegt_brach

 

 

Mongabay

"Hasil penelitian Neumayer and Pluemper (2009) terhadap kejadian iklim ekstrim dan bencana di 141 negara periode 1981 – 2002 menunjukkan, perempuan lebih banyak mengalami kematian dibandingkan laki-laki. Hasil penelitian tersebut menyebutkan potensi perempuan mengalami kematian adalah 14 kali lebih besar dibanding laki-laki."

 

Thomson-Reuters Foundation News

"n developing countries, natural disasters typically kill more women than men because they tend to have lower social and economic rights. Eric Neumayer and Thomas Plumper are among those who have studied this in detail and explain that given existing patterns of gender discrimination, boys are likely to receive preferential treatment when it comes to rescue efforts and both women and girls suffer more from shortages of food and economic resources in the aftermath of disasters."

 

Covid-19

 

The Verge

Querdenken has become one of the leading anti-lockdown and anti-vaccination groups in Germany, with similarities to more extreme groups like QAnon. As the Facebook proposal framed it, the Querdenken movement had potential for violence but wasn’t yet linked to extreme enough activity that would justify banning followers from the platform entirely.

https://www.theverge.com/22740969/facebook-files-papers-frances-haugen-whistleblower-civic-integrity

 

Robert-Koch-Institut

"Für  Deutschland  konnten  wir  durch  die  hier  beschriebene Literatursuche zum Stichtag 15.06.2020 eine empirische Arbeit einschließen. Die nicht begutachtete Veröffentlichung von Plümper und Neumayer [48] analysiert die kumulativen  Inzidenzraten  in  401  deutschen  Kreisen  für  zwei Zeiträume. Die Autorinnen und Autoren berichten für den Zeitraum bis zum 13.04.2020 eine höhere COVID-19-Inzidenz bei höherem regionalem Einkommen, höherem regionalen  Bildungsstatus  sowie  bei  einem  geringeren  Anteil  von  Empfängerinnen  und  Empfängern  von  Sozialleistungen. Für den zweiten untersuchten Zeitraum vom 14.04.2020 bis zum 17.05.2020 berichten die Autorinnen und Autoren genau umgekehrte Zusammenhang."

https://www.rki.de/DE/Content/Gesundheitsmonitoring/Gesundheitsberichterstattung/GBEDownloadsJ/Focus/JoHM_S7_2020_Ungleichheit_COVID_19_Review.pdf?__blob=publicationFile

 

Bertelsmann Stiftung

"Switzerland was one of the first European countries to be affected by the coronavirus pandemic. As with other countries that were affected early, Switzerland took longer to respond than countries that were affected later (Kohler et al. 2020; Wenger et al. 2020), because there were no best practice examples to copy (Plümper and Neumayer 2020)."

 https://www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/de/publikationen/publikation/did/switzerland-report-all

 

KurzyCZ

"Plümper poukazuje na to, že podle médií jsou v USA a ve Velké Británii pandemií nejpostiženější nejchudší části společnosti. Jenže „vztah mezi chudobou a COVID-19 je složitější, než ukazuje anglosaská zkušenost“. Podle ekonoma konkrétně záleží na tom, jak se epidemie začala šířit a jak „vstoupila do země“. Mohou ji tam přinést například lidé ze zahraničí, kteří přichází za prací, studenti, turisté a podobně."

https://www.kurzy.cz/zpravy/548749-plumper-covid-19-jako-nemoc-chudych-nebo-bohatych/

 

 

Famine Mortality

 

"Plümper and Neumayer (2009) claim that the decision to abstain from food aid is a political one and choosing to abstain is, in some cases politically justifiable. To test this, they examine famine occurrences in India, Sudan, and North Korea and compare political systems and motives in each case. India had suffered through two famines of note as a democratic nation: the 1967 famine in Bihar, and the 1973 Maharashtra famine. The very fact that these famines occurred “…not only demonstrates that some famine mortality can happen even in democracies, it also shows that democratic governments do not always act responsively and prevent famines fully.” (Plümper, Neumayer, 2009). In the Bihar case, the political party in power refused to acknowledge that the famine was happening. It was not until the next election that a different political party came to office and recognized the plight of the people. Sudan, also a democracy at the time, saw famine within its borders in the 80s. The Sudanese government saw the famine as a tool to provoke raiding on the rich Dinkas (an ethnic group) and stifled rebellion in the south. The Sudan example shows that even in a democracy, if a group is a political (or ethnic) minority, it is politically advantageous to allow a famine to go unaided. North Korea served as the representative for autocratic (the ruler possesses unlimited power) food aid abstinence. From 1995-2000, between 600,000 and 1 million deaths occurred as a result of famine (Goodkind & West 2001) . This was not because of a lack of foreign aid. The aid ended up being diverted to government officials and the political elite. “Perhaps if food aid were targeted entirely toward relieving food insecurity, it could be a more effective instrument. But food aid has long been intensely political, serving many masters.” (Barrett C. B.). For more on North Korea, see (Famine and Politics in North Korea). Given these case studies, Plümper and Neumayer propose a political theory of famine mortality which boils down to: if it garners you political support, provide food aid; if not, abstain. Democracies place a great deal of power in the hands of the general populace, thus a government is less likely to allow its people to starve. However, democracy causes the issue to become politicized and this runs the risk of political minorities being left to famish. In an autocracy, the government needs only to pander to the elite --although gratuitous cruelty to the masses may lead to rebellion."

https://wiki.geneseo.edu/display/food/Politics+and+the+Decision+to+Abstain+From+Food+Aid

 

"It is important to note, however, that the question of how often famines have occurred within democracies crucially depends upon the definition of famine being used. In particular, what, if any, excess mortality lower-bound is being used yields different answers. As Thomas Plümper and Eric Neumayer (2007)23 point out, a number of smaller-scale events in which drought-related mortality did occur have happened in functioning democracies. As the authors argue, even within democracies it can still be politically advantageous for governments to allow small minorities to starve if in doing so they are able to win more votes by distributing benefits to others."

https://ourworldindata.org/famines/

 

 

Mortality

 

"The researchers show that greater pre-tax income inequality was statistically significant in relation to greater longevity inequality. Addressing the natural belief that a legitimate method of addressing longevity inequality is through increased health expenditure, the article suggests that, for the most part, total health expenditure has no statistically significant effect on longevity. The article goes further to say that if additional health care spending benefits people previously considered too old to receive treatment (a relevant point for developed countries), then additional health care spending could have a positive relationship with longevity inequality; as spending increases, longevity inequality rises."

https://www.theiwg.org/single-post/2017/01/17/Neumayer-and-Plumper-Inequalities-of-Income-and-Inequalities-of-Longevity-A-Cross-Country-Study

 

 

Terrorism

 

“Terrorists have a strong strategic incentive to target Western tourists," says Proffessor Eric Neumayer, one of the authors, says in the report. “Not only will this generate considerable media attention, such attacks also target the major sources of tourist inflows and the victims come from countries whose governments often support, militarily, politically or economically, the governments in Islamic countries that the terrorists wish to overthrow.”

According to Prof Neumayer and his co-author, Thomas Plumper, the value to terrorists of attacking western tourists goes beyond the fact that they are symbols of western culture, easily identifiable as “different” in predominantly Islamic countries. "There is also the impact on national economies the terrorists desire.”

The National

https://www.thenational.ae/business/travel-and-tourism/tourist-industry-worldwide-shows-resilience-to-terror-1.677541

 

 

"Neumeyer and Plumper (2011), on the other hand, contend that US military aid leads to more  terror  against  US  citizens  abroad.  They  write  (p.  14)  that  because  VEOs  want  to  affect  their  country’s  policies  in  a  dramatic  fashion  “American  military  support  to  foreign  governments  creates  an  incentive for foreign terrorist groups to attack Americans.” Note that this runs counter to the logic of Pape who argues that the target of suicide terror is the public in a democratic occupier (e.g., Israel, Sri Lanka, USA, France)."

US Department of Homeland Security, National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism

https://start.foxtrotdev.com/sites/default/files/matrixfiles/165.166.pdf

 

 

Media

 

"Natural disasters do not affect people in the same ways. For some people natural disasters can destroy their whole lives.  For example many people after hurricane forced to move from their hometown of New Orleans and start lives in Houston and other neighboring cities. For others, natural disasters may not cause them to lose anything. What people do not look at is the affects that natural disasters have on other factors like the effect on gender population. In this case from 1981-2002 this case study looks at the effect natural disasters have on deaths of men verse women, the gender gap differences after natural disasters, and if women in higher socioeconomic death rates are higher or lower."

https://southwesterngis.blogspot.co.at/2015/09/natural-disasters-do-not-affect-people.html

 

"Neumayer and Plümper analyzed disasters in 141 countries and found that, when it came to deaths, gender differences were directly linked to women’s economic and social rights; in societies where women and men enjoyed equal rights, disasters caused the same number of deaths in both sexes. They also confirmed that discrepancies were the result of existing inequalities. For example, boys were given preferential treatment during rescue efforts and, following disasters, both women and girls suffered more from shortages of food and economic resources (Neumayer and Plümper, 2007)."

https://www.wikigender.org/wiki/women-and-disasters/

 

"While men are the primary victims of direct armed violence, research by Plumper and Neumayer show that the reduction in life expectancy is greater for women when the entire period of war-related conflict is considered. Perhaps more telling is data from 1992 Burmese refugee camps in Bangladesh, which show that “the mortality rates of females above the age of five was 3.5 times higher than that of males.” The differential morbidity and mortality works primarily through two channels: Biological differences and patriarchal social structures."

http://www.dhakatribune.com/opinion/op-ed/2017/12/05/rohingya-women-refugees-will-die/

 

"Income inequality linked to inequality of life spans for first time High income inequality has been linked to inequality of longevity by new research from the London School of Economics and Politics and Political Science (LSE) and the Vienna University of Economics and Business. According to the research by Professors Eric Neumayer and Thomas Plümper, published in the latest issue of the American Journal of Public Health, greater income inequality before taxes and income transfers in a country results in greater inequality in the number of years people in that country live. In contrast, the greater the re-distribution of incomes via taxes and transfers, the greater the equality in life spans. Eric Neumayer, Professor of Environment and Development at LSE, said: “Our research gets to the heart of why income inequality matters beyond concerns about people having more or less money to buy material goods, for example. One of its consequences, namely inequality in how long people live, is profoundly disturbing.”

http://thezeitgeistmovement.co.za/2017/09/26/economic-apartheid/

 

“Terrorists have a strong strategic incentive to target Western tourists," says Professor Eric Neumayer, one of the authors, says in the report. “Not only will this generate considerable media attention, such attacks also target the major sources of tourist inflows and the victims come from countries whose governments often support, militarily, politically or economically, the governments in Islamic countries that the terrorists wish to overthrow.”

According to Prof Neumayer and his co-author, Thomas Plumper, the value to terrorists of attacking western tourists goes beyond the fact that they are symbols of western culture, easily identifiable as “different” in predominantly Islamic countries. "There is also the impact on national economies the terrorists desire.” As well as deterring tourism to the country in which the attack occurs, or visitors from the victims’ country of origin, the effect spreads. “The decline is larger for tourists from the country whose citizens have been killed or injured, but tourists from other western countries are also deterred,” says Prof Neumayer.

https://www.thenational.ae/business/travel-and-tourism/tourist-industry-worldwide-shows-resilience-to-terror-1.677541

 

"Is the field of counterterrorism one of cooperation or competition? Few politicians or policymakers would dare to suggest that certain counterterrorism policies serve only to shift the threat to other nations. But in a study entitled “The ‘Peer-Effect’ in Counterterrorist Policies,” Eric Neumayer, Thomas Plümper, and Mariaelisa Epifanio suggest that this may in fact be the exact result. Comparing the number of defensive measures taken by various Western nations, the authors explore the theory that a given nation will seek to position itself to be more strongly protected than other states facing comparable levels of terrorist threats.

http://chicagopolicyreview.org/2014/04/08/collaboration-and-competition-in-counterterrorism/

 

"Prof Plümper added that in times of crisis, it’s crucial that those rushing to help realise that not all governments can be trusted. ‘International organisations have to understand that political regimes and public administrations vary among the affected countries,’ he warned. ‘Democratic institutions are much more effective in channelling food aid to the affected population. ‘If resources for food aid are scarce, international organisations save more lives by prioritising support of democratic countries. ‘For example, one can expect the government of Mali to be more willing to cooperate with and support donors than the extremely corrupt governments in Mauritania and Chad.’

http://metro.co.uk/2012/08/03/sahel-drought-in-west-africa-leading-to-crisis-as-millions-of-lives-at-risk-521534/